Proteinuria | Albuminuria and Kidney Disease

One hallmark of kidney disease is the loss of protein in the urine. The kidneys are designed to eliminate waste products, particularly excess salts and water, and to hold onto or retain necessary proteins as they circulate in the blood through the kidneys. One sign of kidney disease is the excretion of protein in the urine, called proteinuria.

Albumin is a small protein molecule that can be excessively eliminated in the urine in kidney disease states (called albuminuria or albumin in the urine). Patients with excessive proteinuria or albuminuria can become malnourished and may be edematous, meaning swelling of the legs or other organs. One form of kidney disease in which large amounts of protein is lost through diseased kidneys is called nephrotic syndrome, and is characterized by severe edema of the extremities.

Proteinuria and Albuminuria in Kidney Disease | Proteinuria in CKD and Renal Failure Updated 1/10/2013 Author Interview: Howard Trachtman, MD

Bisphenol A exposure is associated with low-grade urinary albumin excretion in children of the United States

Leonardo Trasande, Teresa M Attina and Howard Trachtman
Kidney Int advance online publication, January 9, 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.422 Author Interview: Francois Cachat MD

Microalbuminuria and hyperfiltration in subjects with nephro-urological disorders

Francois Cachat, Christophe Combescure, Hassib Chehade, Gregory Zeier, Dolores Mosig, Blaise Meyrat, Peter Frey, and Eric Girardin
Microalbuminuria and hyperfiltration in subjects with nephro-urological disorders
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. first published online December 6, 2012 doi:10.1093/ndt/gfs494 Author Interview :Joshua Barzilay MD

Albuminuria and Rapid Loss of GFR and Risk of New Hip and Pelvic Fractures

Joshua I. Barzilay, Peggy Gao, Catherine M. Clase, Andrew Mente, Johannes F.E. Mann, Peter Sleight, Salim Yusuf, and Koon K. Teo on behalf of the OnTARGET/TRANSCEND Investigators
Albuminuria and Rapid Loss of GFR and Risk of New Hip and Pelvic Fractures
CJASN CJN.06640712; published ahead of print November 26, 2012, doi:10.2215/CJN.06640712 Author Interview: Deidra C. Crews, MD

Low Income and Albuminuria Among REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study Participants
Deidra C. Crews, William M. McClellan, David A. Shoham, Liyan Gao, David G. Warnock, Suzanne Judd, Paul Muntner, Edgar R. Miller, Neil R. Powe
American Journal of Kidney Diseases - 13 June 2012 (10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.05.010)

Author Interview: Dr. Timothy Kenealy

Increased prevalence of albuminuria among non-European peoples with type 2 diabetes

Timothy Kenealy, Carolyn Raina Elley, John F. Collins,  Simon A. Moyes,
Patricia A. Metcalf, and Paul L. Drury Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
(2011)first published online September 13, 2011 doi:10.1093/ndt/gfr540

Author Interview: Ryohei Yamamoto M.D., Ph.D.

Self-reported Sleep Duration and Prediction of Proteinuria: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Ryohei Yamamoto, Yasuyuki Nagasawa, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Maki Shinzawa, Yoshitsugu Obi,
Junya Teranishi, Toshihiro Ishigami, Keiko Yamauchi-Takihara, Makoto Nishida
Hiromi Rakugi, Yoshitaka Isaka, Toshiki Moriyama
American Journal of Kidney Diseases - 24 October 2011 (10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.08.032)

Author Interview: Dr. Leo A. van Grunsven

Valproic Acid Attenuates Proteinuria and Kidney Injury.

Van Beneden K, Geers C, Pauwels M, Mannaerts I, Verbeelen D, van Grunsven LA, Van den Branden C
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Aug 25.
*Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab,
Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium;

Author Interview: Isseki Maeda, MD
Cigarette Smoking and the Association with Glomerular Hyperfiltration and Proteinuria in Healthy Middle-Aged Men.

Maeda I, Hayashi T, Sato KK, Koh H, Harita N, Nakamura Y, Endo G, Kambe H, Fukuda K.
Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; and.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Sep 1

Author Interview: Kyoko Kogawa Sato, MD, PhD

Elevated White Blood Cell Count Worsens Proteinuria but Not Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate: The Kansai Healthcare Study.

Sato KK, Hayashi T, Harita N, Koh H, Maeda I, Endo G, Nakamura Y, Kambe H, Fukuda K.
Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
Am J Nephrol. 2011 Aug 18;34(4):324-329.

Author Interview: Dr. Robert L Hanson MD

Albuminuria and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate as Predictors of Diabetic End-Stage Renal Disease and Death.

Berhane AM, Weil EJ, Knowler WC, Nelson RG, Hanson RL.
Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Aug 18

Author Interview: Dr. William Clark MD FACP FRCPC

Dipstick Proteinuria as a Screening Strategy to Identify Rapid Renal Decline.

Clark WF, Macnab JJ, Sontrop JM, Jain AK, Moist L, Salvadori M, Suri R, Garg AX.
*Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada;
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Aug 1.

Relation between kidney function, proteinuria, and adverse outcomes.
JAMA. 2010 Feb 3;303(5):423-9.
Hemmelgarn BR,  Alberta Kidney Disease Network

C-Reactive Protein Is a Predictor for Developing Proteinuria in a Screened Cohort.

Nephron Clin Pract. 2010 Aug 4;117(1):c51-c56
Iseki K, Iseki C, Kinjo K.
Dialysis Unit, University Hospital of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Japan.




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